Arms for export? A reappraisal of the Brazilian arms industry
There is a near-consensus among scholars and policymakers that the principal factor leading to Brazil’s arms industry crisis was its dependence on exports. However, the diffusion of the arms export-dependence argument contrasts with the lack of empirical support for it. Currently, there are no recent studies consistently estimating the overall size of Brazil’s arms production nor its reliance on external markets. Without a proper measurement of Brazil’s domestic procurement capacity, any assessment of its external dependence is only partial. To address this issue, this article uses data on domestic procurement previously introduced by the author to re-evaluate Brazil’s dependence on arms exports. While certainly important, the export-dependence argument has been overstated. Indeed, a fall in demand in the late 1980s led to a major decrease in Brazilian arms exports. However, the state managed to absorb a significant part of the production until mid-1990s. The data on domestic procurement sheds new light on institutional explanations for Brazil’s arms industry crisis.
Full Text:Subscribers Only
Avila, C.F.D. 2009. “Armas Brasileiras Na America Central Brazilian Arms in Central America.” Varia Historia. Vol. 25, No. 41, pp. 293–314. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-87752009000100015
Avila, C.F.D. 2011. “O Brasil, a Politica Nacional de Exportacao de Material de Emprego Militar – PNEMEM – e o Comercio Internacional de Armas: Um Estudo de Caso.” Tempo. Vol. 16, No. 30, pp. 221–41. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1413-77042011000100010
Bove, V. and E. Cavatorta. 2012. “From Conscription to Volunteers: Budget Shares in Nato Defence Spending.” Defence and Peace Economics Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 273–288. https://doi.org/10.1080/10242694.2011.563973
Brigagao, C. 1986. “The Brazilian Arms Industry.” Journal of International Affairs. Vol. 40, No.1, pp. 101–14.
Brzoska, M. 2019. “Combining Data on Military Demand and Supply for Arms Production Estimates.” The Economics of Peace and Security Journal. Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 42–54. https://doi.org/10.15355/epsj.14.2.42
Brzoska, M. and T. Ohlson, eds. 1986. Arms Production in the Third World. London: Taylor & Francis.
Conca, K. 1997. Manufacturing Insecurity: The Rise and Fall of Brazil’s Military-Industrial Complex. London: Lynne Rienner.
Dagnino, R. 1989. A Industria de Armamentos Brasileira: Uma Tentativa de Avaliacao. Campinas, Brazil: Universidade Estadual de Campinas.
Dagnino, R. 2010. A Industria de Defesa No Governo Lula. Sao Paulo: Expressao Popular.
Dagnino, R. and L.A.N. Campos Filho. 2007. “Análise Sobre a Revitalizacao Da Industria de Defesa Brasileira.” Brazilian Business Review Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 191–207.
Dreyfus, P., Lessing, B., de Sousa Nascimento, M. and J.C. Purcena. 2010. Small Arms Survey Small Arms in Brazil: Production, Trade, and Holdings. Geneva: Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies.
Franko-Jones, P. 1991. The Brazilian Defense Industry. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Franko, P.M. 1998. “The Puzzle of Brazilian Arms Production.” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs. Vol. 40, No. 4, pp. 137–43. https://doi.org/10.2307/166458
Franko, P.M. 2014. “The Defense Acquisition Trilemma: The Case of Brazil.” Strategic Forum No. 262, pp. 1–12.
Gouvea, R. 2015. “Brazil’s New Defense Paradigm.” Defense and Security Analysis. Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 137–51. https://doi.org/10.1080/14751798.2015.1038452
Hartley, K. 2018. “Arms Industry Data: Knowns and Unknowns.” The Economics of Peace and Security Journal. Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 30–36. https://doi.org/10.15355/epsj.13.2.30
Hartley, K. and T. Sandler. 2003. “The Future of the Defense Firm.” Kyklos. Vol. 56, No. 3, pp. 361–80. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0023-5962.2003.00225.x
Kapstein, E.B. 1991. “The Brazilian Defense Industry and the International System.” Political Science Quarterly. Vol. 105, No. 4, pp. 579–96. https://doi.org/10.2307/2150936
Krause, K. 1992. Arms and the State: Patterns of Military Production and Trade. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511521744
Kurc, C. 2017. “Between Defense Autarky and Dependency: The Dynamics of Turkish Defense Industrialization.” Defense Studies. Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 260–81. https://doi.org/10.1080/14702436.2017.1350107
Kurc, C. and S.G. Neuman. 2017. “Defense Industries in the 21st Century: A Comparative Analysis.” Defense Studies. Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 219–27. https://doi.org/10.1080/14702436.2017.1350105
Lock, P. 1986. “Brazil: Arms for Export,” pp. 79–104 in M. Brzoska and T. Ohlson, eds. Arms Production in the Third World. London: Taylor & Francis.
Lopes da Silva, D. 2018. “Filling Arms Production Data Gaps: South America as a Case in Point.” The Economics of Peace and Security Journal. Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 20–27. https://doi.org/10.15355/epsj.13.2.19
Lopes da Silva, D. 2020. “Reassessing Brazil’s Arms Industry,” pp. 482–505 in K. Hartley and J. Belin, eds. The Economics of the Global Defense Industry. New York: Routledge.
Magalhaes, D. A. M. 2018. A Politica Brasileira de Exportacao de Armas (2003-2014). Sao Paulo: Cultura Acadêmica.
Maldifassi, J.A. and P. Abetti. 1994. Defense Industries in Latin American Countries: Argentina, Brasil and Chile. Westport, CT: Praeger.
[MD] Ministerio da Defesa. 2012. “Livro Branco de Defesa Nacional.” Brasilia: Ministerio da Defesa. http://www.defesa.gov.br/arquivos/2012/mes07/lbdn.pdf [accessed 16 November 2019]
Moraes, R.F. de. 2012. “Texto para Discussao no 1715 A Insercao Externa Da Industria Brasileira de Defesa: 1975-2010.” Brasilia: IPEA.
http://www.ipea.gov.br/portal/images/stories/PDFs/TDs/td_1715.pdf. [accessed 16 December 2019]
Neuman, S.G. 1984. “International Stratification and Third World Military Industries.” International Organization. Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 167–97. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300004306
Neuman, S.G. 2006. “Defense Industries and Global Dependency.” Orbis. Vol. 50, No. 3, pp. 429–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orbis.2006.04.004
[PR] Presidencia da Republica. 2008. “Aprova a Estrategia Nacional de Defesa, e da outras providências.” Decree no 6703. Brasilia: PR. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_ato2007-2010/2008/Decreto/D6703.html. [accessed 16 November 2019]
Sandler, T, and K. Hartley. eds. 1995. Handbook of Defense Economics Vol. 1. Defense in a globalized world. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Smith, R. and A. Tasiran. 2010. “Random Coefficients Models of Arms Imports.” Economic Modelling Vol. 27, No. 6, pp. 1522–1528. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econmod.2010.07.017
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.