The effects of terrorism on happiness: Evidence from Turkey
The economic effects of terror attacks have been extensively examined in the literature. Yet there is a paucity of empirical research investigating their effect on welfare. Existing studies suggest that, in addition to economic costs, terror also imposes social costs. Using both micro-level data at the individual level and macro-level data at the provincial level, this article examines the association of terror and happiness in Turkey. To address income endogeneity, the conditional mixed process estimation method is employed. The results indicate that while a bidirectional relationship between happiness and income level exists, terror negatively affects happiness. Additional factors such as perceived relative income, gender, employment status, and household size have significant effects on individual wellbeing as well. The findings suggest that measuring only the economic costs of terror fails to capture the full extent of the costs imposed on society.
Full Text:Subscribers Only
Algan, Y., C. Hemet, and D.D. Laitin. 2016. “The Social Effects of Ethnic Diversity at the Local Level: A Natural Experiment with Exogenous Residential Allocation.” Journal of Political Economy. Vol. 124, No. 3, pp. 696–733. https://doi.org/10.1086/686010
Araz-Takay, B., K.P. Arin, and T. Omay. 2009. “The Endogenous and Non-Linear Relationship Between Terrorism and Economic Performance: Turkish Evidence.” Defence and Peace Economics. Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1080/10242690701775509
Aslam, F., Rafique, A., Salman, A., Kang, H.G., and W. Mohti. 2018. “The Impact of Terrorism on Financial Markets: Evidence from Asia.” The Singapore Economic Review. Vol. 63, No. 5, pp. 1183–1204. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0217590815501118
Baltatescu, S. 2007. “Central and Eastern Europeans Migrants’ Subjective Quality of Life. A Comparative Study.” Journal of Identity and Migration Studies. Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 67–81.
Barger, S.D., C.J. Donoho, and H.A Wayment. 2009. “The Relative Contributions of Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, Health, and Social Relationships to Life Satisfaction in the United States.” Quality of Life Research. Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 179–189. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-008-9426-2
Bartram, D. 2013. “Happiness and ‘Economic Migration’: A Comparison of Eastern European Migrants and Stayers.” Migration Studies. Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 156–175. https://doi.org/10.1093/migration/mnt006
Bilgel, F., and B.C. Karahasan. 2017). “The Economic Costs of Separatist Terrorism in Turkey.” Journal of Conflict Resolution. Vol. 61, No. 2, pp. 457–479. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022002715576572
Blanchflower, D.G., and A.J. Oswald. 2004a. “Money, Sex and Happiness: An Empirical Study.” Scandinavian Journal of Economics. Vol. 106, No. 3, pp. 393–415. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0347-0520.2004.00369.x
Blanchflower, D.G., and A.J. Oswald. 2004b. “Well-Being Over Time in Britain and the USA.” Journal of Public Economics. Vol. 88, No. 7, pp. 1359–1386. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0047-2727(02)00168-8
Blanchflower, D.G., and A.J. Oswald. 2008. “Is Well-Being U-shaped Over the Life Cycle?” Social Science and Medicine. Vol. 66, No. 8, pp. 1733–1749. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.01.030
Bloom, D.E., and D. Canning. 2000. “The Health and Wealth of Nations.” Science. Vol. 287, No. 5456, pp. 1207–1209. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.287.5456.1207
Blunk, S.S., D.E. Clark, and J.M. McGibany. 2006. “Evaluating The Long-Run Impacts of the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks on U.S. Domestic Airline Travel.” Applied Economics. Vol. 38, No. 4, pp. 363–370. https://doi.org/10.1080/00036840500367930
Boehm, J.K., and S. Lyubomirsky. 2008. “Does Happiness Promote Career Success?” Journal of Career Assessment. Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 101–116. https://doi.org/10.1177/1069072707308140
Brian W.S. 2003. “Assessing the Effects of Terrorism on Tourism by Use of Time Series Methods.” Tourism Economics. Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 179–190. https://doi.org/10.5367/000000003101298349
Bryson, A., and G. MacKerron. 2018. “How Does Terrorism Affect Individuals’ Wellbeing?” IZA Discussion Paper No. 11273. https://ssrn.com/abstract=3111146.
Calvo, E., C.A. Mair, and N. Sarkisian. 2015. “Individual Troubles, Shared Troubles: The Multiplicative Effect of Individual and Country-Level Unemployment on Life Satisfaction in 95 Nations (1981–2009).” Social Forces. Vol. 93, No. 4, pp. 1625–1653. https://doi.org/10.1093/sf/sou109
Caner, A. 2014. “Happiness, Comparison Effects, and Expectations in Turkey.” Journal of Happiness Studies. Vol. 16, No. 5, pp. 1323–1345. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-014-9562-z
Canetti-Nisim, D., E. Halperin, K. Sharvit, and S.E. Hobfoll. 2009. “A New Stress-Based Model of Political Extremism.” Journal of Conflict Resolution. Vol. 53, No. 3, pp. 363–389. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022002709333296
Cheng, T.C., N. Powdthavee, and A.J. Oswald. 2015. “Longitudinal Evidence for a Midlife Nadir in Human Well-Being: Results from Four Data Sets.” Economic Journal. Vol. 127, No. 599, pp. 126–142. https://doi.org/10.1111/ecoj.12256
Chesney, M., G. Reshetar, and M. Karaman. 2011. “The Impact of Terrorism on Financial Markets: An Empirical Study.” Journal of Banking & Finance. Vol. 35, No. 2, pp. 253–267. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbankfin.2010.07.026
Clark, A.E., P. Frijters, and M.A. Shields. 2008. “Relative Income, Happiness, and Utility: An Explanation for the Easterlin Paradox and Other Puzzles.” Journal of Economic Literature. Vol. 46, No. 1, pp. 95–144. https://doi.org/10.1257/jel.46.1.95
Colletta, N.J. 2004. “Human-Driven Disasters Violent Conflict, Terrorism and Technology.” Inter-American Development Bank. http://www.iadb.org/wmsfiles/products/publications/documents/1442046.pdf.
Cordero, J.M., J. Salinas-Jimenez, and M.M. Salinas-Jimenez. 2017. “Exploring Factors Affecting the Level of Happiness Across Countries: A Conditional Robust Nonparametric Frontier Analysis.” European Journal of Operational Research. Vol. 256, No. 2, pp. 663–672. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2016.07.025
Diener, E., M. Diener, and C. Diener. 1995. “Factors Predicting the Subjective Well-Being of Nations.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 69, No. 5, pp. 851–864. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3522.214.171.1241
Dolan, P., T. Peasgood, T., and M. White. 2008. “Do We Really Know What Makes Us Happy? A Review of the Economic Literature on the Factors Associated with Subjective Well-Being.” Journal of Economic Psychology. Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 94–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joep.2007.09.001
Drakos, K., and A.M. Kutan. 2003. “Regional Effects of Terrorism on Tourism in Three Mediterranean Countries.” Journal of Conflict Resolution. Vol. 47, No. 5, pp. 621–641. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022002703258198
Dumludag, D. 2013. “Life Satisfaction and Income Comparison Effects in Turkey.” Social Indicators Research. Vol. 114, No. 3, pp. 1199–1210. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-012-0197-3
Dumludag, D., O. Gokdemir, and S. Giray. 2016. “Income Comparison, Collectivism and Life Satisfaction in Turkey.” Quality and Quantity. Vol. 50, No. 3, pp. 955–980. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-015-0185-1
Easterlin, R.A. 1974. “Does Rapid Economic Growth Improve the Human Lot? Some Empirical Evidence,” pp. 89–125 in Paul A. David and Melvin W. Reder, eds. Nations and Households in Economic Growth: Essays in Honor of Moses Abramowitz. New York: Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-205050-3.50008-7
Easterlin, R.A. 1995. “Will Raising the Incomes of All Increase the Happiness of All?” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization. Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 35–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-2681(95)00003-B
Easterlin, R.A. 2001. “Income and Happiness: Towards a Unified Theory.” Economic Journal. Vol. 111, pp. 465–484. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0297.00646
Eckstein, Z., and D. Tsiddon. 2004. “Macroeconomic Consequences of Terror: Theory and the Case of Israel.” Journal of Monetary Economics. Vol. 51, No. 5, pp. 971–1002. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmoneco.2004.05.001
Ekici, T., and S. Koydemir. 2014. “Social Capital, Government and Democracy Satisfaction, and Happiness in Turkey: A Comparison of Surveys in 1999 and 2008.” Social Indicators Research. Vol. 118, No. 3, pp. 1031–1053. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-013-0464-y
Enders, W., and T. Sandler. 1991. “Causality Between Transnational Terrorism and Tourism: The Case of Spain.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism. Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 49–58. https://doi.org/10.1080/10576109108435856
Enders, W. And T. Sandler. 1993. “The Effectiveness of Antiterrorism Policies: A Vector-Autoregression- Intervention Analysis.” American Political Science Review. Vol. 87, No. 4, pp. 829–844. https://doi.org/10.2307/2938817
Enders, W., and T. Sandler. 2000. “Is Transnational Terrorism Becoming More Threatening? A Time-Series Investigation.” Journal of Conflict Resolution. Vol. 44, No. 3, pp. 307–322. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022002700044003002
Enders, W., T. Sandler, and G.F. Parise. 1992. “An Econometric Analysis of the Impact of Terrorism on Tourism.” Kyklos. Vol. 45, No. 4, pp. 531–554. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6435.1992.tb02758.x
Feridun, M., and S. Sezgin. 2008. “Regional Underdevelopment and Terrorism: The Case of South Eastern Turkey.” Defence and Peace Economics. Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 225–233. https://doi.org/10.1080/10242690801972196
Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A. 2013. “Happiness Economics.” SERIEs. Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 35–60. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13209-012-0086-7
Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A., and P. Frijters. 2004. “How Important is Methodology for the Estimate of the Determinants of Hapiness?” Economic Journal. Vol. 114, No. 497, pp. 641–659. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0297.2004.00235.x
Fielding, D. 2003. “Counting the Cost of the Intifada: Consumption, Saving and Political Instability in Israel.” Public Choice. Vol. 116, Nos. 3–4, pp. 297–312. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024831518541
Fielding, D. 2004. “How Does Violent Conflict Affect Investment Location Decisions? Evidence from Israel During the Intifada.” Journal of Peace Research. Vol. 41, No. 4, pp. 465–484. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022343304044477
Frey, B.S., S. Luechinger, and A. Stutzer. 2007. “Calculating Strategy: Assessing the Costs of Terrorism.” Journal of Economic Surveys. Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6419.2007.00505.x
Frey, B.S., S. Luechinger, and A. Stutzer. 2009. “The Life Satisfaction Approach to Valuing Public Goods: The Case of Terrorism.” Public Choice. Vol. 138, Nos. 3–4, pp. 317–345. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11127-008-9361-3
Frey, B.S., and A. Stutzer. 2002. “What Can Economists Learn from Happiness Research?” Journal of Economic Literature. Vol. 40, No. 2, pp. 402–435. https://doi.org/10.1257/jel.40.2.402
Frijters, P., J.P. Haisken-Denew, and M.A. Shields. 2004. “Money Does Matter! Evidence from Increasing Real Income and Life Satisfaction in East Germany Following Reunification.” American Economic Review. Vol. 94, No. 3, pp. 730–740. https://doi.org/10.1257/0002828041464551
Frijters, P., and T. Beatton. 2012. “The Mystery of the U-shaped Relationship Between Happiness and Age.” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization. Vol. 82, Nos. 2–3, pp. 525–542. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2012.03.008
[GDT] Global Terrorism Database. 2016. National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START). https://www.start.umd.edu/gtd.
Goldfrank, L.R., A.M. Panzer, and A.S. Butler, eds. 2003. Preparing for the Psychological Consequences of Terrorism: A Public Health Strategy. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.
Greenbaum, R.T., L. Dugan, and G. Lafree. 2006. “The Impact of Terrorism on Italian Employment and Business Activity.” Urban Studies. Vol. 44, Nos. 5–6, pp. 1093–1108. https://doi.org/10.1080/00420980701255999
Helliwell, J.F. 2003. “How’s Life? Combining Individual and National Variables to Explain Subjective Well-Being.” Economic Modelling. Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 331–360. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0264-9993(02)00057-3
Jong, G.F., A. Chamratrithirong, and Q.G. Tran. 2002. “For Better, For Worse: Life Satisfaction Consequences of Migration.” International Migration Review. Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 838–863. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-7379.2002.tb00106.x
Judge, T.A., and R. Ilies. 2004. “Is Positiveness in Organizations Always Desirable?” The Academy of Management Executive. Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 151–155. https://doi.org/10.5465/ame.2004.15268761
Kahneman, D., A.B. Krueger, D. Schkade, N. Schwarz, and A.A. Stone. 2006. “Would You Be Happier If You Were Richer?” Science. Vol. 312, pp. 1908–1910. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1129688
Kangal, A. 2013. “Mutluluk Üzerine Kavramsal Bir Değerlendirme ve Türk Hanehalkı için Bazı Sonuçlar.” Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi. Vol. 12, No. 44, pp. 214–233.
Knight, J., and R. Gunatilaka. 2010. “Great Expectations? The Subjective Well-being of Rural-Urban Migrants in China.” World Development. Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 113–124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.03.002
Knight, J., L. Shi, and L. Song. 2006. “The Rural-Urban Divide and the Evolution of Political Economy in China,” pp. 44–63 in J.K Boyce, S. Cullenberg, P.K. Pattanaik, and R. Pollin, eds. Human Development in the Era of Globalization: Essays in Honor of Keith B.Griffin. Cheltenham, UK: Elgar.
Knight, J., L. Song, and R. Gunatilaka. 2007. “Subjective Well-Being and Its Determinants in Rural China.” China Economic Review. Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 635–649. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chieco.2008.09.003
Kollias, C., S. Papadamou, and A. Stagiannis. 2011. “Terrorism and Capital Markets: The Effects of the Madrid and London Bomb Attacks.” International Review of Economics & Finance. Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 532–541. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iref.2010.09.004
Kollias, C., S. Papadamou, and V. Arvanitis. 2013. “Does Terrorism Affect the Stock Bond Covariance? Evidence from European Countries.” Southern Economic Journal. Vol. 79, No. 4, pp. 832–848. https://doi.org/10.4284/0038-4038-2012.309
Koczan, Z. 2016. “(Why) are Immigrants Unhappy?” IZA Journal of Migration. Vol. 5, No. 3, p. 25. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40176-016-0052-4
Kristoffersen, I. 2010. “The Metrics of Subjective Wellbeing: Cardinality, Neutrality and Additivity.” Economic Record. Vol. 86, No. 272, pp. 98–123. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4932.2009.00598.x
Lyubomirsky, S., L. King, and E. Diener. 2005. “The Benefits of Frequent Positive Affect: Does Happiness Lead to Success?” Psychological Bulletin. Vol. 131, No., 6, pp. 803–855. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.131.6.803
MacKerron, G. 2012. “Happiness Economics From 35,000 Feet.” Journal of Economic Surveys. Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 705–735. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6419.2010.00672.x
Melzer, S.M. 2011. “Does Migration Make You Happy? The Influence of Migration on Subjective Well-Being.” Journal of Social Research & Policy. Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 73–92.
Mentzakis, E., and M. Moro. 2009. “The Poor, the Rich and the Happy: Exploring the Link Between Income and Subjective Well-being.” Journal of Socio-Economics. Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 147–158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socec.2008.07.010
Mignonac, K., and O. Herrbach. 2005. “Linking Work Events, Affective States, and Attitudes: An Empirical Study of Managers’ Emotions.” Journal of Business and Psychology. Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 221–240. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-004-0549-3
Mutlu, S. 1996. “Ethnic Kurds in Turkey: A Demographic Study.” International Journal of Middle East Studies. Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 517–541. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0020743800063819
Nakazato, N., U. Schimmack, and S. Oishi. 2011. “Effect of Changes in Living Conditions on Well-Being: A Prospective Top-Down Bottom-Up Model.” Social Indicators Research. Vol. 100, No. 1, pp. 115–135. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-010-9607-6
Nowok, B., M. van Ham, A.M. Findlay, and V. Gayle. 2013. “Does Migration Make You Happy? A Longitudinal Study of Internal Migration and Subjective Well-being.” Environment and Planning A. Vol. 45, No. 4, pp. 986–1002. https://doi.org/10.1068/a45287
Ocal, N., and J. Yildirim. 2010. “Regional Effects of Terrorism on Economic Growth in Turkey: A Geographically Weighted Regression Approach.” Journal of Peace Research. Vol. 47, No. 4, pp. 477–489. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022343310364576
Peiro, A. 2006. “Happiness, Satisfaction and Socio-Economic Conditions: Some International Evidence.” Journal of Socio-Economics. Vol. 35, No. 2, pp. 348–365. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.042
Powdthavee, N. 2010. “How Much Does Money Really Matter? Estimating the Causal Effects of Income on Happiness.” Empirical Economics. Vol. 39, No. 1., pp. 77–92. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00181-009-0295-5
Romanov, D., A. Zussman, and N. Zussman. 2012. “Does Terrorism Demoralize? Evidence from Israel.” Economica. Vol. 79, No. 313, pp. 183–198. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0335.2010.00868.x
Roodman, D. 2009. “Mixed-Process Models with CMP.” Center for Global Development. Working Paper No. 168. https://www.cgdev.org/sites/default/files/1421516_file_Roodman_cmp_FINAL.pdf.
Roodman, D. 2011. “Fitting Fully Observed Recursive Mixed-Process Models with CMP.” Stata Journal. Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 159–206. https://doi.org/10.1177/1536867X1101100202
Schiff, M. 2006. “Living in the Shadow of Terrorism: Psychological Distress and Alcohol Use Among Religious and Non-Religious Adolescents in Jerusalem.” Social Science and Medicine. Vol. 62, No. 9, pp. 2301–2312. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.10.016
Schuster, M.A., B.D. Stein, L.H. Jaycox, R.L. Collins, G.N. Marshall, M.N. Elliott, and S.H. Berry. 2001. “A National Survey of Stress Reactions After the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks.” New England Journal of Medicine. Vol. 345, No. 20, pp. 1507–1512. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM200111153452024
Selim, S. 2008. “Life Satisfaction and Happiness in Turkey.” Social Indicators Research. Vol. 88, No. 3, pp. 531–562. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-007-9218-z
Shalev, A.Y., R. Tuval, S. Frenkiel-Fishman, H. Hadar, and S. Eth. 2006. “Psychological Responses to Continuous Terror: A Study of Two Communities in Israel.” American Journal of Psychiatry. Vol. 163, No. 4, pp. 667–673. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.2006.163.4.667
Shields, M.A., and S. Price. 2005. “Exploring the Economic and Social Determinants of Psychological Well-Being and Perceived Social Support in England.” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A (Statistics in Society). Vol. 168, No. 3, pp. 513–537. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-985X.2005.00361.x
Stack, S., and J.R. Eshleman. 1998. “Marital Status and Happiness: A 17-Nation Study.” Journal of Marriage and Family. Vol. 60, No. 2, pp. 527–536. https://doi.org/10.2307/353867
Stam, K., I. Sieben, E. Verbakel, and P.M. de Graaf. 2016. “Employment Status and Subjective Well-Being: The Role of the Social Norm to Work. Work.” Employment & Society. Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 309–333. https://doi.org/10.1177/0950017014564602
Stevenson, B.B., and J. Wolfers. 2009. “The Paradox of Declining Female Happiness.” American Economic Journal: Economic Policy. Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 190–225. https://doi.org/10.1257/pol.1.2.190
Stone, A., J.E. Schwartz, J.E. Broderick, and A. Deaton. 2010. “A Snapshot of the Age Distribution of Psychological Well-Being in the United States.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Vol. 107, No. 2, pp. 9985–9990. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1003744107
Strandh, M., A. Hammarström, K. Nilsson, M. Nordenmark, and H. Russel. 2013. “Unemployment, Gender and Mental Health: The Role of the Gender Regime.” Sociology of Health and Illness. Vol. 35, No. 5, pp. 649–665. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9566.2012.01517.x
Stutzer, A. 2004. “The Role of Income Aspirations in Individual Happiness.” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization. Vol. 54, No. 1, pp. 89–109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2003.04.003
Stutzer, A., and B.S. Frey. 2006. “Does Marriage Make People Happy, or Do Happy People Get Married?” Journal of Socio-Economics. Vol. 35, No. 2, pp. 326–347. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.043
Switek, M. 2016. “Internal Migration and Life Satisfaction: Well-Being Paths of Young Adult Migrants.” Social Indicators Research. Vol. 125, No. 1, pp. 191–241. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-014-0829-x
Tosun, C., D.J. Timothy, and Y. Ozturk. 2003. “Tourism Growth, National Development and Regional Inequality in Turkey.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism. Vol. 11, Nos. 2–3, pp. 133–161. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669580308667200
Tunali, I. 2000. “Rationality of Migration.” International Economic Review. Vol. 41, No. 4, pp. 893–920. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2354.00089
[TurkStat] Turkish Statistical Institute. 2013. Life Satisfaction Survey of 2013. http://www.turkstat.gov.tr/MicroVeri/YMA_2013/index.html.
Unal, M.C. 2016. “Is It Ripe Yet? Resolving Turkey’s 30 Years of Conflict with the PKK.” Turkish Studies. Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 91–125. https://doi.org/10.1080/14683849.2015.1124020
[UNWTO] United Nations World Tourism Organization. 2018. Tourism Statistics. https://www.e-unwto.org/loi/unwtotfb.
van der Meer, P.H. 2014. “Gender, Unemployment and Subjective Well-Being: Why Being Unemployed Is Worse for Men than for Women.” Social Indicators Research. Vol. 115, No. 1, pp. 23–44. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-012-0207-5
van Landeghem, B.G.M. 2012. “Human Well-Being over the Life Cycle: Longitudinal Evidence from a 20-Year Panel.” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization. Vol. 81, No. 2, pp. 571–582. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2011.08.001
van Praag, B.M.S. 2007. “Perspectives from the Happiness Literature and the Role of New Instruments for Policy Analysis.” CESifo Economic Studies. Vol. 53, No. 1, pp. 42–68. https://doi.org/10.1093/cesifo/ifm002
Vendrik, M.C.M., and. G.B. Woltjer. 2007. “Happiness and Loss Aversion: Is Utility Concave or Convex in Relative Income?” Journal of Public Economics. Vol. 91, Nos. 7–8, pp. 1423–1448. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2007.02.008
Verme, P. 2018. “The Relative Deprivation and Satisfaction: Empirical Findings,” pp. 356–376 in C. D’Ambrosio, ed. Handbook of Research on Economic and Social Well-being. Cheltenham, UK: Elgar. https://doi.org/10.4337/9781781953716.00021
Vorsina, M., M. Manning, C.M. Fleming, C.L. Ambrey, and C. Smith. 2017. “The Welfare Cost of Terrorism.” Terrorism and Political Violence. Vol. 29, No. 6, pp. 1066–1086. https://doi.org/10.1080/09546553.2015.1111207
Warr, P. 1982. “Psychological Aspects of Employment and Unemployment.” Psychological Medicine. Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 7–11. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291700043221
Winkelmann, L., and R. Winkelmann. 1998. “Why Are the Unemployed So Unhappy? Evidence from Panel Data.” Economica. Vol. 65, No. 257, pp. 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0335.00111
Wolbring, T., M. Keuschnigg, and E. Negele. 2013. “Needs, Comparisons, and Adaptation: The Importance of Relative Income for Life Satisfaction.” European Sociological Review. Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 86–104. https://doi.org/10.1093/esr/jcr042
Yaya, M.E. 2009. “Terrorism and Tourism: The Case of Turkey.” Defence and Peace Economics. Vol. 20, No. 6, pp. 477–497. https://doi.org/10.1080/10242690903105414
Yechiam, E., G. Barron, I. Erev, S. Krakover, J. Busemeyer, and I. Weinberg. 2005. “The Role of Personal Experience in Contributing to Different Patterns of Response to Rare Terrorist Attacks.” Journal of Conflict Resolution. Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 430–439. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022002704270847
Yildirim, J., and N. Ocal. 2013. “Analysing the Determinants of Terrorism in Turkey Using Geographically Weighted Regression.” Defence and Peace Economics. Vol., 24, No. 3, pp. 195–209. https://doi.org/10.1080/10242694.2012.695034
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.