Filling arms production data gaps: South America as a case in point

Diego Lopes da Silva

Abstract


In this article I argue that the data collection methods and procedures behind the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute’s (SIPRI) global arms trade database can also be used to approximate domestic purchases of local production of major conventional arms. The total output of domestic arms industries would then be the sum of what is domestically retained (procured) plus arms exports, if any. The feasibility of this idea is tested by presenting new data on domestic arms production for five South American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Venezuela) between 1960 and 2015. The results show the critical role government purchases play in maintaining domestic arms industries.

Keywords


Arms industry; South America; data

Full Text:

 Subscribers Only

References


Akerman, A., and A. Larsson Seim. 2014. “The Global Arms Trade Network 1950-2007.” Journal of Comparative Economics. Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 535–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jce.2014.03.001

Battaglino, J. 2011. “Auge, Caída y Retorno de La Defensa En La Argentina.” Foreign Affairs Latinoamérica. Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 32–39.

Battaglino, J. 2013a. “The Determinants of Arms Spending in South America.” Journal of Politics in Latin America. Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 71–103.

Battaglino, J. 2013b. “The Politics of Defense Revival in Argentina.” Defense and Security Analysis. Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 3–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/14751798.2013.760251

Bitzinger, R.A. 1994. “The Globalization of the Arms Industry: The Next Proliferation Challenge.” International Security. Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 170–198. https://doi.org/10.2307/2539199

Bitzinger, R.A., ed. 2003. Towards a Brave New Arms Industry. London: Routledge.

Bove, V. and E. Cavatorta. 2012. “From Conscription to Volunteers: Budget Shares in Nato Defence Spending.” Defence and Peace Economics. Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 273–288. https://doi.org/10.1080/10242694.2011.563973

Brzoska, M. 1982. “Arms Transfer Data Sources.” Journal of Conflict Resolution. Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 77–108. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022002782026001003

Brzoska, M. 1999. “Economic Factors Shaping Arms Production in Less Industrialized Countries.” Defence and Peace Economics. Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 139–169. https://doi.org/10.1080/10430719908404921

Brzoska, M. 2004. “The Economics of Arms Imports after the End of the Cold War.” Defence and Peace Economics. Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 111–123. https://doi.org/10.1080/1024269032000110496

Colgan, J.D. 2011. “Venezuela and Military Expenditure Data.” Journal of Peace Research. Vol. 48, No. 4, pp. 547–556. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022343311406156

Conca, K. 1997. Manufacturing Insecurity: The Rise and Fall of Brazil’s Military-Industrial Complex. London: Lynne Rienner.

Costa, N.F. da. 1998. “A Indústria Brasileira de Material de Defesa: Principais Óbices.” Revista Da Escola Superior de Guerra. Vol. 13, No. 37, pp. 160–202.

Dunne, J.P. 2009. “Developments in the Global Arms Industry from the End of the Cold War to the Mid-2000’s,” pp. 13–37 in R.A. Bitzinger, ed. The Modern Defense Industry: Political, Economic, and Technological Issues. Santa Barbara: Praeger.

Fei, E.T. 1979. “Understanding Arms Transfers and Military Expenditures: Data Problems,” pp. 37–48 in S.G. Neuman and R. Harkavy, eds. Arms Transfers in the Modern World. New York: Praeger.

Franko, P.M. 2014. “The Defense Acquisition Trilemma: The Case of Brazil.” Energy. No. 262, pp. 1–12.

Gouvea, R. 2015. “Brazil’s New Defense Paradigm.” Defense and Security Analysis. Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 137–151. https://doi.org/10.1080/14751798.2015.1038452

Hall, P., S. Markowski, and D. Thomson. 1998. “Defence Procurement and Domestic Industry: The Australian Experience.” Defence and Peace Economics. Vol. 9, Nos. 1–2, pp. 137–165. https://doi.org/10.1080/10430719808404898

Hartley, K., and T. Sandler. 2003. “The Future of the Defence Firm.” Kyklos. Vol. 56, No. 3, pp. 361–380. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0023-5962.2003.00225.x

Kapstein, E.B. 1991. “The Brazilian Defense Industry and the International System.” Political Science Quarterly. Vol. 105, No. 4, pp. 579–596. https://doi.org/10.2307/2150936

Kinsella, D. 1998. “Arms Transfer Dependence and Foreign Policy Conflict.” Journal of Peace Research. Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 7–23. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022343398035001002

Kinsella, D. 2000. “Arms Production in the Third Tier: An Analysis of Opportunity and Willingness.” International Interactions. Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 253–286. https://doi.org/10.1080/03050620008434968

Kirkpatrick, D.L.I. 1995. “The Rising Unit Cost of Defence Equipment: The Reasons and the Results.” Defence and Peace Economics. Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 263–288. https://doi.org/10.1080/10430719508404831

Kirkpatrick, D.L.I. 2004. “Trends in the Costs of Weapon Systems and the Consequences.” Defence and Peace Economics. Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 259–273. https://doi.org/10.1080/1024269032000123203

Kollias, C., S.M. Paleologou, P. Tzeremes, and N. Tzeremes. 2017. “Defence Expenditure and Economic Growth in Latin American Countries: Evidence from Linear and Nonlinear Causality Tests.” Latin American Economic Review. Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 1-25. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40503-017-0039-4

Kolodziej, E.A. 1979. “Measuring French Arms Transfers: A Problem of Sources and Some Sources of Problems with ACDA Data.” Journal of Conflict Resolution. Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 195–227. https://doi.org/10.1177/002200277902300201

Lock, P. 1986. “Brazil: Arms for Export,” pp. 79–104 in P. Lock, M. Brzoska, and T. Ohlson, eds. Arms Production in the Third World. London: Taylor & Francis.

Maldifassi, J.O., and P. Abetti. 1994. Defense Industries in Latin American Countries: Argentina, Brazil, and Chile. Westport: Praeger.

Markowski, S., and P. Hall. 1998. “Challenges of Defence Procurement.” Defence and Peace Economics. Vol. 9, Nos. 1–2, pp. 3–37. https://doi.org/10.1080/10430719808404892

Molas-Gallart, J. 1998. “Defence Procurement as an Industrial Policy Tool: The Spanish Experience.” Defence and Peace Economics. Vol. 9, Nos. 1–2, pp. 63–81. https://doi.org/10.1080/10430719808404894

Moraes, R.F. de. 2011. “A Indústria de Defesa Na Argentina.” Boletim de Economia e Política Internacional. No. 6, pp. 49–61.

Neuman, S.G. 1984. “International Stratification and Third World Military Industries.” International Organization. Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 167–197. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300004306

Neuman, S.G. 2006. “Defense Industries and Global Dependency.” Orbis. Vol. 50, No. 3, pp. 429–451. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orbis.2006.04.004

Peleg, I. 1980. “Military Production in Third World Countries: A Political Study,” pp. 209–230 in P. McGowan and E. Kegley, eds. Threats, Weapons, and Foreign Policy. Beverly Hills: Sage.

Perlo-Freeman, S. 2004. “Offsets and the Development of the Brazilian Arms Industry,” pp. 185–200 in J. Brauer and J.P. Dunne, eds. Arms Trade and Economic Development: Theory, Policy, and Cases in Arms Trade Offsets. London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203392300_chapter_13

Sanjian, G.S. 1999. “Promoting Stability or Instability? Arms Transfers and Regional Rivalries,1950–1991.” International Studies Quarterly. Vol. 43, No. 4, pp. 641–670. https://doi.org/10.1111/0020-8833.00140

Sköns, E., and H. Wulf. 1994. “The Internationalization of the Arms Industry.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. Vol. 535, pp. 43–57. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002716294535001004

Smith, R.P, A. Humm, and J. Fontanel. 1985. “The Economics of Exporting Arms.” Journal of Peace Research. Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 239–247. https://doi.org/10.1177/002234338502200305

Smith, R.P., and A. Tasiran. 2005. “The Demand for Arms Imports.” Journal of Peace Research. Vol. 42, No. 2, pp. 167–181. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022343305050689

Smith, R.P., and A. Tasiran. 2010. “Random Coefficients Models of Arms Imports.” Economic Modelling. Vol. 27, No. 6, pp. 1522–1528. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econmod.2010.07.017

Villa, R.D., and J.Viggiano. 2012. “Trends in South American Weapons Purchases at the Beginning of the New Millennium.” Revista Brasileira de Política Internacional. Vol. 55, No. 2, pp. 28–47. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-73292012000200003

Yesilyurt, F., B. Güloglu, E. Yesilyurt, and Ş. Sezgin. 2014. “The Determinants of Arms Production.” Defence and Peace Economics. Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 205–211. https://doi.org/10.1080/10242694.2013.804670




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15355/epsj.13.2.19

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.